Welding is a process of joining similar metals, i.e. Metals with same base content and similar properties or melting point.There are different types of welding methods based on the process of welding. Generally it involves heating of the metal and fusing them, with or without additional filler metal.

The content below answers your questions:

  • What are the types of Base metals?
  • What is Carbon Steel and what is Alloy Steel?
  • What is purpose of alloying element in steel?
  • How are steels classified?

Different Base metals in general industry are :-

Welding procedure-AQC

  • Steel:
    • Low Carbon Steel – C 0.05 to 0.3 % (ex: AISI 1005, 1008 etc)
    • Medium Carbon Steel – C 0.3 to 0.8 %
    • High Carbon Steels – C > 0.8 % (ex. A 36)
    • Alloy Steel – (Cr, V, Co, Mo, Ni, Nb, Ti, W, V, Zr etc.)
    • Stainless Steel (ex: SS304, SS 316 L, etc)
  • Cast Iron – C >2%
  • Aluminum
  • Copper, Brass
  • Titanium
  • Magnesium Alloys
Why is Alloying Element added in steel?

Alloying elements are added to achieve a specific property for the steel. Different alloying element has different characteristics. The characteristics of the elements are given below:

Effects of Alloying Elements:

  • Carbon (C) – Strength
  • Chromium (Cr) – Corrosion Resistance
  • Manganese (Mn) – Toughness
  • Molybdenum (Mo) – 1% is for Creep Resistance
  • Vanadium (V) – Strength
  • Sulphur (S) – Impurity
  • Phosphorus (P) – Impurity
  • Silicon (Si) – Deoxidizer
  • Nickel (Ni) – Low Temperature Applications
  • Copper (Cu) – for Weathering Steels
  • Titanium (Ti) – Grain Refiner, for micro alloying element (Strength & Toughness)
  • Aluminum (Al) – Grain refiner, <0.008% deoxidizer + Toughness
  • Niobium (Nb) – Grain refiner, for micro alloying element (strength & Toughness)

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