Ultrasonic testing involves sound waves , that is otherwise called as vibration traveling inside a medium , the ultrasonic sound waves gets reflected back whenever there is change in a material ( different acoustic impedance ) ,  the reflection is more when the sound meets Air voids as the impedence difference is huge .

Probe Selection

Probe Frequency:

Conventional UT , has probe with frequencies form 1 MHz to 10 MHZ

Higher the frequency more sensitive the inspection are , but also consider that very high frequency probes will produce more scatter noises from the grain boundaries of the metal. Probe of 4 MHz is common , chose a lower probe of 2 MHz only when the material is with poor or coarse grain structure.

Probe Angle Selection :

As a thumb rule, consider the below formula

probe angle selection for UT testing

Machine Range Setting :

Range ≥ 3 leg length of the sound paths  ,

use the formula below to find out the leg length

UT machine settings

Weld Scanning area on the material :

Should scan at least 1 ½ skip distance on the surface , for complete weld coverage .

Find the formula below to calculate the total weld scan area

Weld scanning

Normal probe selection for Heat affected zone scan:

Use normal probe for thickness more than 80mm

Use TR probe for thickness less than 80mm

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