Standards for Welding Positions:

It is very important for the Weld Inspector to know the position, or location of a joint relative to the horizon, because it may determine what welding process, methods, and techniques can be used.

Welding is usually easiest when the welder can work on a joint located on a flat, horizontal surface, such as on a table or bench. However, joints in the field may be located in a variety of positions relative to the welder and to the horizon, as shown below.

1)  Welding positions – AWS D1.1, European Welding Standard EN 287 – 1, ASME IX:

Types of joints in welding

AWS welding standards

2) Welding Positions – Butt, Fillet and Piping Welds:

Butt welding

Flat Butt Weld Position – 1G

In this position, the axis line of the weld must not incline more than 15° from the horizon and the face of the weld must be on top. Welders often refer to the flat-position welding by the nonstandard term downhand welding.

1G weld position

Horizontal Butt Weld Position – 2G

In this position, both plates are perpendicular to the bench top, but the axis of the weld remains horizontal. The lower surface of the groove helps somewhat to hold the molten weld metal in place.

2G weld position

Vertical Butt Weld Position – 3G

In this position, the axis of the weld is perpendicular to the bench top and more difficult than in the flat and horizontal positions. The two plates and the axis of the weld are inclined more than 15° in reference to the horizontal bench top.

3 G Weld position

Overhead Butt Weld Position – 4G

In this position, the axis of the weld and the plates are horizontal, but the face for welding is downward. Welding in the overhead position is very difficult because there’s nothing to help overcome the force of gravity. A welder must have a high degree of skill to make sound welds consistently in this position.

4 G weld position

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